Purpose: Developing healthcare profession students’ cultural competency knowledge, skills and attributes is critical to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare service consumers. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify effective cultural competence interventions for healthcare profession students. Methods: A systematic review of peer reviewed articles published from 2010-2021 using PRISMA guidelines was conducted by searching CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PubMed, and Psych INFO databases. Article quality was assessed using the Evaluation Tool for Quantitative Research and Mixed Method Appraisal Tool. Results: The initial search identified 2,261 potentially relevant studies, 41 studies met the inclusion criteria in which intervention effectiveness was evaluated using a validated outcome measure pre- and post- intervention. Only one study used a non-self-report outcome measure. Out of the 41 studies, only eight studies employed randomisation in the method. Conclusion/Recommendations: This review evaluated effectiveness of cultural competence interventions and evaluation of the intervention using either self-report or non-self-report validated outcome measures at pre- and post-intervention exposure. Combining cultural competence teaching methods such as lectures with simulations, role-playing and community engagement with diverse populations enhanced cultural competence. Further studies are required to compare effective cultural competence teaching models and identify reliable non-self-report outcome measures to assess the effectiveness of interventions post-exposure. Comparing effective cultural competence teaching models that utilise reliable non-self-report outcome measures will be valuable for guiding the design of teaching and learning interventions directed towards cultural competence. Further research is also required to examine the duration of intervention efficacy and how to maintain efficacy post-intervention exposure. Findings from this review are important for designing and structuring of cultural competence curriculum for healthcare profession students and informing future research on cultural competence teaching. This review has identified that most evaluation tools and studies have been designed for the nursing discipline. There is need to design more cultural competence evaluation tools and studies for other healthcare disciplines such as pharmacy and physical therapy.

Author Bio(s)

Gloria Nkhoma is a PhD student in the school of health and biomedical sciences and has interest in addressing health inequalities in asylum seekers, refugees and culturally diverse populations. The main focus of my thesis is on identifying and addressing an essential element for healthcare services for asylum seekers.

Ieva Stupans, PhD, is a Professor in pharmacy, an experienced pharmacy academic who has wide research interests. In her teaching she strives to develop learning opportunities and assessment tasks that are learner focused.

Gerard A. Kennedy, PhD, is a professor in clinical psychology, has developed his expertise in sleep psychology during more than 24 years of practice as a senior clinical psychologist in the Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine at Austin Hospital Health. He maintains a strong research program in the area of sleep and circadian rhythms, and other areas of psychology. He has published more than 200 articles in refereed journals and books, and given many conference presentations, presentations to the media and community organisations.

Chiao Xin Lim, PhD, is a registered pharmacist with experience in community and hospital pharmacy. She has been working in academia since 2013, and currently coordinates 3rd year undergraduate pharmacy practice courses at Royal Melbourne Institute Technology. Her research interests are focused on personalised medicine and improving health outcomes of culturally and linguistically diverse populations.




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