Purpose: Effective feedback delivery is critical to behavior modification and skill improvement in novice learners and athletic training programs often use annual training to teach preceptors to develop feedback skills. The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the effectiveness of an on-line asynchronous educational module for improving feedback delivery. Method: We used a single cohort, repeated measures design (pre, post, post-post) and an eAuthoring tool (Softchalk©) and online assessments (Qualtrics® Provo, UT) to evaluate the educational module. Preceptors (n=351) from 17 post-baccalaureate programs began the study; 48 completed all 3 assessments. We delivered a content validated lesson and assessments using various learning theories including video demonstrations with paired reflections. The desired outcome was to enhance the knowledge of effective feedback characteristics to be used in practice. The pre-test assessed self-reported feedback behaviors on a Likert Scale and knowledge (score=25). The immediate post-test reassessed feedback knowledge. At least 8 weeks following completion of the module, participants were asked to reassess feedback delivery behaviors. Throughout the process, participants provided a definition of “effective feedback” scored on 7 key criteria for effective feedback delivery. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests were used to analyze the data and significance was set at Pa-priori. Results: Significant improvements (P-3.298 P=.001, Cohen’s d=.889). There were no other significant differences between pre-test and follow-up behaviors (P>.05), as participants generally agreed they performed effective feedback behaviors (mode=4) at both time points. Conclusions: Behaviors regarding effective feedback were not changed over the long-term, which may have been a result of the method of performance feedback. Preceptor training is both a requirement and a need in effective athletic training clinical education. Future research should aim to identify mechanisms to improve preceptor feedback and confirm preceptor perceptions through student evaluations.

Author Bio(s)

Karina Gonzalez DAT, ATC is a graduate of the Doctorate in Athletic Training program at Indiana State University and is a practicing athletic trainer in performing arts in California.

Matthew J. Drescher DAT, LAT, ATC is a doctoral student in Teaching and Learning at Indiana State University and is a graduate of the Doctorate in Athletic Training program at Indiana State University.

Elizabeth R. Neil PhD, LAT, ATC is the Clinical Education Coordinator and Assistant Professor of Instruction for Athletic Training Programs at Temple University.

Lindsey E. Eberman PhD, LAT, ATC is a Professor at Indiana State University and is the Program Director for the Leadership & Professional Development and Doctorate in Athletic Training programs.




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