Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the ability of the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) to classify athletic trainers (ATs) and athletic directors (ADs) readiness to act with regards to adopting an emergency action plan (EAP), and describe factors influencing PAPM stages. Method: We used a cross-sectional questionnaire design to evaluate readiness to act for developing an EAP among ATs and ADs working in United States high schools. The PAPM is a participant-driven model to identify someone’s readiness to act or change and has seven stages: Unaware, Unengaged, Undecided, Decided not to Act, Decided to Act, Acting and Maintaining. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results: A majority of ATs and ADs reported maintaining an EAP in their secondary school (AT “Maintaining” = 84.4%, AD “Maintaining” = 68.7%). ADs were more likely to be staged as “Decided not to Act” (PR=0.14, 95% CI= 0.05, 0.41) for the development of an EAP compared to ATs. ATs were more likely to be staged as “Maintaining” (PR=1.23, 95% CI = 1.16, 1.30) for the development of an EAP compared to ADs. Conclusions: The PAPM appears to be able to classify AT and AD readiness to act with adoption of an EAP. However, statistical modeling struggles to identify predictors for the various stages. Future research should aim to use the PAPM stages in the development of tailored interventions.
This study was partially funded by the NATA Research & Education Foundation.
Scarneo-Miller SE, Casa DJ, Yin S, Moore TE, Murata Y, Register-Mihalik JK, et al. The Precaution Adoption Process Model in Describing Emergency Action Plan Adoption. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. 2021 Jan 01;19(2), Article 2.