Introduction: Patient advocacy is an often encountered term, but one for which no consistent definition exists. Advocacy is a new and developing role of the paramedic that is closely linked to the developing professionalism of paramedicine, along with the expanding role of the paramedic as a healthcare professional in the community. This role however requires exploration and clarification. Methods: A literature search was performed of multiple databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and prominent paramedic journals. Results: No published literature investigating the theory or practice of paramedic patient advocacy, the potential conflicts and benefits of this role, or the perceived and actual barriers to advocacy paramedics face was discovered. Conclusion: The following literature review and discussion investigate the concept of paramedic patient advocacy, the contexts in which advocacy may take place, potential barriers, benefits and conflicts. Proposals are also included for areas requiring further research.

Author Bio(s)

Alan Batt MSc CCP is a critical care paramedic, educator and researcher based in Ontario, Canada.

Gerard Ward BSc CCP is a critical care paramedic and a medical student at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, in Dublin, Ireland.

Joseph Acker MA EMT-P(cc) is a critical care paramedic, Director of Patient Care Delivery with British Columbia Ambulance Service, Canada and an Adjunct Senior Lecturer in Paramedicine at Charles Sturt University in NSW, Australia.




Submission Location


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.