This study explores the experiences of othering and violence in school. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in five schools located in the fragile setting of Nepal for over six months. Using the idea of othering, this study unveils that the academically low performers and culturally undervalued students are more likely to be labelled as Bhuskul, the ‘other’. This category is used to rationalize discrimination and use violence against the 'other'. With the cementing practices of ‘othering’ and violence, the schools are unable to foster values of peace and nonviolence but on the contrary, it will continue reinforcing structural violence and perpetuating direct violence. More research is required to understand and address the issue of inter-sectional othering process that normalize the discrimination and use of violence in school.

Author Bio(s)

Dr. Raj Kumar Dhungana is a peace educationist with over a decade long experience in Save the Children, UNICEF and UN Regional Center for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific. He contributed to integrating peace, human rights, civics and disarmament related lessons in Nepal’s national curriculum, textbooks and teacher training materials. Additionally, he was involved in integrating peace education in the national curriculum of schools in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Afghanistan. He served as a co-convener of the Peace Education Commission, International Peace Research Association 2016-2018. He is active in peace research and teaching in Kathmandu University School of Education and working in Norwegian Embassy in Kathmandu. He is interested in promoting peace, justice and good governance.


ethnography of school violence, intersectionality, othering, culture of peace




Raj Kumar Dhungana (researchgate.net)



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