With the heavy involvement of the United Nations (UN) and the international community, the Rome General Peace Agreement of 1992 ended more than 16 years of civil war in Mozambique. The peace agreement and post-conflict initiatives by the international community was successful in transforming the Mozambique National Resistance
(Renamo) from a rebel group into a viable political party. Key components of the United Nations and the broader international community success in negotiating peace and creating conditions for political stability and democracy in Mozambique were (a) the provision of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) before democratisation, (b) decentralization of humanitarian and relief efforts to provincial and district levels, (c) provision of financial support directly for the development of political parties, and (d) budget support to sectors relevant to peacebuilding. Though imperfect, Mozambique remains an important case study in how the UN and international community can help in post-conflict environments. Thus, the paper argues that success in peacebuilding operations depends on credible and impartial international support through the UN, as opposed to peacebuilding operations through the United States of America or Russia.

Author Bio(s)

Dr. Ayokunu Adedokun is a research fellow at Maastricht University Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG) and the United Nations University (UNU-MERIT) in the Netherlands. His research broadly focuses on international peacebuilding and conflict resolution, terrorism and counter-terrorism strategy as well as democratization. His regional focus is sub-Saharan Africa. His research is mainly based on qualitative comparative case studies. He was a recipient of Clarendon scholarship at Oxford University and a World Bank fellow.


Civil war, Peacebuilding, United Nations, International Community, Mozambique

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