A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which were summarized in six themes. The main themes described the perceived causes of threat, reactions to threat, how the referees manage stressful situations, and their motives to referee.


Aggression, Threats, EPP-method, Referees and Soccer


This study was supported by grants from the Swedish National Center for Research in Sports, Stockholm

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