This qualitative study used data collected from five interviews conducted to gather cultural and linguistic feedback on a 21-question instrument created for a future study focused on Ethiopian girl athletes. Participants met the following criteria: (a) native to Ethiopia (b) at least 15 years old and (c) proficient English reading and speaking skills. Participants did not complete the questionnaire, rather, they read it and provided cultural and linguistic feedback on its content. Participants provided feedback via interviews both in person and over the phone during a two-week period. The instrument was designed to collect data from members of Girls Gotta Run Foundation, a non-profit organization in Ethiopia that uses sport to promote gender equity. It consists of questions that focus on girls’ perceptions on the constructs of gender, sport, and voice empowerment. Findings demonstrated the importance of providing greater flexibility in questions that related to age and career goals, while the impact running has on Ethiopian culture was reinforced. Conducting this pilot study demonstrated the importance of testing cross-cultural instruments prior to final instrument administration to gain the most culturally accurate data possible.


Ethiopia, Girls, Sport, Capability Approach, Open-Response Questionnaire

Author Bio(s)

Dr. Kathleen Ralls is a recent graduate of the University of Massachusetts Lowell. A former public school teacher and coach, she has been passionate about gender equity issues and sport for as long as she can remember. Please direct correspondence to kathleen_ralls@uml.edu.


Thank you to Dr. AJ Angulo, whose guidance and support during this project was instrumental in its ultimate success.

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