The qualitative case study’s purpose was to determine if classroom-based physical activities would affect student off-task behaviors during instruction and students’ perceptions of ability to focus before and after activities. Research questions focused on kindergarteners’ ability to focus after classroom-based physical activity, perceptions of their ability to focus change with implementation of classroom-based physical activity, and effect of classroom-based physical activity on behavior. Kindergarteners were involved in daily activity stations such as jumping on trampolines, walking balance beams, crawling, and hopscotch. Three students were purposively selected as participants. Data were collected using interviews, video recordings, field notes, and off-task behavior frequency charts and analyzed using a constant comparative method. Study results indicated that implementation of classroom-based physical activities decreased students’ off-task behaviors. Decrease in off-task behaviors increased students’ perceptions of their ability to pay attention and remain on-task. Recommendations for future research include using a control group and participants diagnosed with ADHD.


Off-Task Behaviors, Attention, Physical Activities, Kindergarten, Case Study

Author Bio(s)

Sara Wiebelhaus is a kindergarten teacher in the Sioux Falls School District. Correspondence regarding this article can be addressed directly to: michelle.hanson@usiouxfalls.edu.

Michelle Fryer Hanson is an Associate Professor of Education at the University of Sioux Falls. Correspondence regarding this article can also be addressed directly to: michelle.hanson@usiouxfalls.edu.

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