The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which tutors provided feedback in online tutorials at Indonesia Open University (Universitas Terbuka or UT), as well as tutors' constraint in providing that feedback. This qualitative study used both content analysis of 20 online tutorial classes to see tutors’ feedback and in-depth interviews with the tutors. The results of the study showed that only some tutors in the online tutorial classes provided feedback on discussions and assignments and that some tutors did not provide any feedback. The analysis of the feedback derived from the types of feedback coined by Alvarez, Espasa, and Guasch (2011), namely, corrective feedback, epistemic feedback, suggestive feedback, and epistemic+suggestive feedback. In the online tutorial classes at UT, some feedback from the tutors corresponded with the types of feedback from Alvarez, Espasa and Guasch. The tutors who provided feedback did so despite constraints such as a lack of time to give feedback to each student. Provision of feedback offered benefits and satisfaction to students, leading them to become more successful in online tutorials.


distance learning, online feedback, online tutorial, tutor constraint, qualitative research, content analysis

Author Bio(s)

Made Yudhi Setiani is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Law, Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia. She holds a Ph.D. in Education from Simon Fraser University, Canada, and Master’s degree in Political Science from Universitas Indonesia. Her research interests are in political education, political participation, and distance education. Please direct correspondence to madeys@ecampus.ut.ac.id.

Charles Scott is an Adjunct Professor in the Faculty of Education at Simon Fraser University where he is a co-coordinator of and teaches in a Master’s program on Contemplative Inquiry and Learning. He also teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in curriculum and educational foundations. He is also an Associate Professor at City University in Canada, where he was the former coordinator and instructor in the M.Ed. Leadership in Education program; at City University, he has also taught courses in the M.Ed. School Counselling program and the M.A. Master of Counselling program. His research interests are in contemplative inquiry, spirituality in education, dialogue in education, holistic education, and the considerations and intersections of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. Please direct correspondence to charless@sfu.ca

Susanti Susanti is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Law, Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia. She holds a Doctoral degree in Governance Science from Institute of Governance of Home Affairs, Indonesia. Please direct correspondence to susanti@ecampus.ut.ac.id


This study was supported by the research fund from the Institute of Research and Community Services of Universitas Terbuka Indonesia in 2020.

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