Immersive virtual reality (IVR) in higher education has gained traction as a way to engage learners in immersive and authentic learning experiences. However, there is a need for guidance on how to design and implement IVR solutions. We used a design-based research methodology to answer the following overarching research question and sub-questions: (1) How can 360-degree video vignettes presented within an IVR environment be designed and implemented to facilitate quality management competencies? (1a) How do learners experience this technology? (1b) What is the process for creating and implementing this technology? (1c) How can we best design the learning experience? We designed, developed, and formatively evaluated a use case within a master’s level quality management course in a college of business and collected quantitative and qualitative data from project stakeholders. This report focuses on our qualitative data collection and analysis. Results are presented in themes and sub-themes as follows: IVR experience (sub-themes: physical discomfort, emotional sensations, and attitudes); IVR technical integration (sub-themes: resources, process flow, and stakeholders) and IVR learning integration (sub-themes: teaching and learning affordances, drawbacks, and learning design). Findings can be useful in guiding the design and implementation of IVR applications for learning in higher education.


360-degree videos, immersive virtual reality, quality management, instructional design, experiential learning, design-based research

Author Bio(s)

Martha M. Snyder, Ph.D., PMP, SPHR, CHSE, is a Professor in the Department of Education at Abraham S. Fischler College of Education and School of Criminal Justice in Nova Southeastern University. Please direct correspondence to smithmt@nova.edu.

Steven Kramer, Ph.D., MBB, is Professor of Decision Sciences in the H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University. Please direct correspondence to sk863@nova.edu.

Diane Lippe, Ed.S., is the Executive Director of the Learning and Educational Center at Nova Southeastern University. Please direct correspondence to lippe@nova.edu.

Sharan Sankar is an Undergraduate Student in the Razor’s Edge Research Program and the 4+4 Dual BS/DO at Nova Southeastern University.


This research was supported by Nova Southeastern University's President's Faculty Research and Development Grant

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