Teachers’ professional ideology and their involvement in out-of-school hours (OoSH) practices have been questioned in recent times. This study explores how schoolteachers understand their professional ideology in relation to their OoSH practices and how they explain their participation in private tutoring in addition to formal schooling. This study deploys a qualitative approach using in-depth semi-structured interviews with nine secondary school teachers in Bangladesh. The thematic analysis highlights a substantial gap between Bangladeshi school teachers’ professional ideologies and their involvement in private tutoring. The findings from the study reveal that the respondents perceive their dual roles as schoolteachers and tutors as controversial and detrimental to discharging their professional duties in an ideological way. They recurrently struggle to justify the dual roles that contribute to the dilemma of professional ideologies. As such, private tutoring does not just create a problem in classroom teaching but affects professional ideology and commitment to teaching principles. The study recommends policymakers and professionals look into these issues to gain a deeper insight into the existing private tutoring literature concerning teachers’ professional ideologies.


teachers’ professional ideology, teachers’ professionalism, private tutoring, out-of-school hours (OoSH) practice, qualitative study, semi-structured interviews, Bangladesh

Author Bio(s)

Dr. M. Monjurul Islam is a senior lecturer in TESL at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Science at Prime University of Bangladesh. He obtained his PhD from the University of Malaya, Malaysia. Dr. Islam has published many articles in various Scopus indexing journals including Q1 and Q2 journals. His research interests lay in the areas of policy and planning, early childhood, curriculum and instruction, and language teaching-learning. Email: monj0603@gmail.com

Dr. Mohammed Shamsul Hoque is currently a professor of English at Daffodil International University, Bangladesh. With a Cambridge CELTA from the Cambridge University, UK, an M.Ed. TEFL from the University of Wales, and a Ph.D. in TESL from the University Sains Islam Malaysia, he has specialized in Curriculum Development, TESOL, and TEFL methodologies. He has taught English language and literature for over four decades and a half in Bangladesh, Turkey, Malaysia, and the UK. Email: hoque.eng@daffodilvarsity.edu.bd

Dr. Wan Mazlini Binti Othman is currently the Head of English language and literature department and also a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Languages and Communication, Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI). She obtained her PhD from University of Tasmania, Australia. She has more than 22 years of teaching experience in UPSI. Her areas of expertise are in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), English Literature, Applied Linguistics and Teacher Education. Email: wan.mazlini@fbk.upsi.edu.my

Dr. Saraswathy Thurairaj is an assistant professor at the Faculty of Creative Industries at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia. Dr Saras has been teaching at the tertiary level for the past 23 years. She has also worked together with other academics from Europe and India on her study, and she has published work on topics like entrepreneurship, sustainable development goals, language policies, learning, and teaching. ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5921-7779. Email: tsaraswathy@utar.edu.my

Ghadah Al Murshidi is currently an associate professor in Curriculum and Instruction, and previously was in Applied Linguistics, in the College of Education, United Arab Emirates University, UAE, where she taught graduate and undergraduate courses. Her recent awards were the best Arab Youth researchers, Comparative and International Education Society annual conference, “Young Emirati Researchers Prize” and Emirati Women award. She is chair of Chair of “Innovation” committee, “Communication and Public Relations” committee, and member of Council for the accreditation of Educator Preparation committee, Mobile Learning Project, and the marketing and publicity committee. She is reviewer of the Journal of Education and Training Studies, British Journal of Education, and English Linguistics Research. Email: g_almurshidi@uaeu.ac.ae

Dr. Latha Ravindran is the Head of the Education Department in SEGi University. Her PhD in TESL from University of Malaya is on English Language Policy changes. She has published papers as well as presented in both local and international conferences. Her areas of research interests include ESL policy implementation, ESL teaching, teacher professional development, curriculum development, learner autonomy, language learning and curriculum development. Email: latharavindran@segi.edu.my


We would like to give our heartiest thanks to all the participants of this study.

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