To meaningfully determine how well students have achieved learning targets, instructors must adopt specific formative assessment techniques. During the COVID-19 pandemic, existing studies have discovered the techniques instructors in higher education use in their formative assessment practices. However, there has not been any consensus on the prevalent formative assessment techniques used. In this study, we examined empirical documents to determine to what extent formative assessment has supported formal or informal techniques, or both. A total of 15 samples of published documents on the formative assessment techniques used by instructors in higher education were purposively selected and subjected to summative content analysis. The findings revealed that instructors have used more formal than informal formative assessment techniques. The most predominant techniques were paper and pencil tests. The findings imply that formative assessment in higher education amid COVID-19 has followed responsive evaluation/feedback techniques compared to assessment conversations and dialogues. This calls for the need to refocus formative assessment to include both informal and formal techniques by embracing and adapting to technologically enhanced assessment and learning.
formative assessment, formal and informal assessment techniques, higher education, COVID-19, summative content analysis
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Recommended APA Citation
Asamoah, D., Shahrill, M., & Abdul Latif, S. (2022). A Review of Formative Assessment Techniques in Higher Education During COVID-19. The Qualitative Report, 27(2), 475-487. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2022.5145