Learners who have learned English through the audio-lingual method have a profound knowledge of grammar, but they cannot use it to communicate their knowledge and experience fluently. To solve this problem, there was a shift towards communicative language teaching (CLT). This shift towards CLT solved the fluency problem but created another unwanted effect since learners were communicatively competent but linguistically incompetent. While many teachers weed out form as irrelevant, some CLT teachers try to respond to this problem by addressing from in CLT classes. This study aims at conceptualizing these teachers’ perspectives and uncover the strategies they use in addressing grammar in communicative instruction. Following the constructivist grounded theory procedures, participants’ perspectives were theoretically sampled through in-depth, open-ended interviews. Abstraction and thematic analysis of participants’ experiences clearly revealed that the participants helped learners not only discover the target form but also connect it to their experience. It was also found that they used contrastive analysis, contextualization of input flood, and the integrated skill approach to address form in predominantly communicative classes. These findings have clear implications for teachers, teacher trainers and school policy makers.


teachers’ strategies, grammar instruction, communicative instruction, interview data, grounded theory

Author Bio(s)

Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi (PhD in TEFL) is currently a full-time associate professor of TEFL at the department of applied linguistics, Shahrood University of Technology (SUT), Iran. He teaches both graduate and undergraduate courses including language teaching methodology, research methodology, materials development, and EAP. His chief research interest is language teacher education, grounded theory, and theories of practice. He has published in a number of leading peer-reviewed journals. He is also a member the editorial board of some journals in applied linguistics and language teaching. Correspondence regarding this article can be addressed directly to: Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi at, ostovarnamaghi@shahroodut.ac.ir.

Soheila Kamali received her MA in TEFL from Shahrood University of Technology, Iran in (2018). Currently she is in charge of Shokooh Danesh Toos language school in Mashhad where she teaches conversational and written skills to EFL learners.

Farhad Moezzipour (PhD in General Linguistics) is an assistant professor of linguistics at Shahrood University of Technology, Iran. His research interests are Role and Reference Grammar, Systemic Functional Grammar, Computational Linguistics and Language Pedagogy.

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