Shackling a person with schizophrenia violates human rights. This process is often carried out when the person has committed acts of violence and hostility. In this study, we focus on considering the shackling of a person with schizophrenia in Indonesia’s context. We used grounded theory (GT; Charmaz, 2011) with 23 participants located in the East Java Province, Indonesia. The participants consisted of people with schizophrenia who were shackled by their ankles, families treating people with schizophrenia, the cadre volunteers, prominent figures, and nurses. We used in-depth interviews using semi-structured questions. We identified five phases associated with the process of shackling a person with schizophrenia: (a) distress signal, (b) high demand for treatment, (c) a change of positive convictions, (d) loss of confidence and capability, and (e) restrictions. Understanding the process of shackling people with schizophrenia will help the Indonesian government prevent people with schizophrenia from being shackled by their ankles.


schizophrenia, the process of shackling people with schizophrenia, grounded theory

Author Bio(s)

Dr. Ns. Heni Dwi Windarwati, S.Kep., M.Kep., Sp.Kep.J. is a lecturer in community nursing department with the Nursing faculty of Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java Indonesia, Postal code 65145. Please direct correspondence to hewinda80@gmail.com.

Prof. Budi Anna Keliat, S.Kp., M. App.Sc. is a professor in Department of Mental Health Nursing with the Faculty of Nursing of Indonesia University, Jakarta, Indonesia, Gedung FIK UI & Laboratorium, Jl. Prof. Dr. Bahder Djohan, Kampus UI Depok, West Java Indonesia. Please direct correspondence to budianna_keliat@yahoo.com.

Prof. Dr. dr. Raden. Irawati Ismail, Sp.KJ(K), M.Epid. is a professor in Medical Faculty, Indonesia University, Kampus Jaya 29 Cidodol Kebayoran Lama Jakarta Selatan Indonesia. Please direct correspondence to ira_ismail@yahoo.com.

Adang Bachtiar, M.D., M.P.H., D.S.C. is a senior lecturer in Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Indonesia University, Kampus Jaya 29 Cidodol Kebayoran Lama Jakarta Selatan Indonesia. Please direct correspondence to adang@post.harvard.edu.

Erna Erawati, S.Kep., Ns., M.N. (Corresponding author) is a lecturer in Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes Semarang, Indonesia, Perintis Kemerdekaan Street, Magelang City, Central Java Province, Indonesia, Postal address: 56115. Please direct correspondence to ernaerawati57@yahoo.com.


Thankful for all participants in this study

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