This phenomenological qualitative study analyzes the lived experiences of eleven Bangladeshi higher secondary students in mainstream schools to provide insight into their thoughts, feelings, beliefs, values, and assumptions of private tutoring in English (PT-E). The study also focused on PT-E that contribute to inequalities between students who have access to private tutoring and those who do not. Each participant participated in a one-to-one in-depth semi-structured interview. Using phenomenological analysis, 321 significant statements and three themes emerged. The data show that unequal practice, discrimination due to financial capability, and social psyche for PT-E that influences students to widen the negative impacts of PT-E between students, particularly those who do not have an access in private tutoring of English (PT-E).


private tutoring of English, private supplementary tutoring, qualitative research, lived experience, shadow education, inequality, Bangladesh

Author Bio(s)

Dr. M. Monjurul Islam is currently an Associate Professor and Head of English at Prime University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. He received his doctorate in TESL from the University of Malaya, Malaysia. His research focuses on the policy and practice of TESOL education in Bangladesh and South Asia, English as a second language (ESL) methodology, and second language teacher education. He may be contacted at monjurul@primeuniversity.edu.bd

Dr. Shams Hoque is currently an Associate Professor and Head of English at Daffodil International University, Bangladesh. He received an M.Ed TEFL from the University of Wales and a Ph.D.in TESL from the University Sains Islam Malaysia. He has specialized in Curriculum Development, TESOL, and TEFL methodologies. He may be contacted at hoque.eng@daffodilvarsity.edu.bd.

Dr. Kazi Enamul Hoque is an Associate Professor at Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia. He has specialized in Educational Management, Planning and Policy. He may be contacted at Keh2009@um.edu.my.

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