Information and communication technology (ICT) is a strong force for economic, social, political, and educational reforms happening throughout the world including in developing countries. In this qualitative inquiry, we aimed at elaborating factors affecting ICT integration during teaching practices in pre-service teacher training programs (PTTPs) of three Indonesian universities from the perspectives of fifty-five pre-service teachers. The thematic analysis of this study revealed two major themes, barriers and enablers, which affected the integration of ICT during teaching practices. Based on the themes, this study led to the development of a conceptual model of factors affecting the ICT integration. Recommendations are made for the betterment of Indonesian PTTPs and related stakeholders.


Focus Group Discussion, Affecting Factors, ICT Integration, Pre-Service Teachers

Author Bio(s)

Akhmad Habibi is an educational researcher working at Universitas Jambi, Indonesia and University of Malaya, Malaysia. Focusing on statistics and education, he has published his work in many journals (e.g. Education and Information Technologies, Heliyon, Data in Brief, SageOpen, The Qualitative Report, Electronic Journal of e-Learning, Journal of Baltic of Educational Science, etc.). He is a reviewer for some reputable journals like Heliyon, SageOpen, Accountability in Research, International Journal of Instruction, etc.

Dr. Rafiza Abdul Razak is the head of department of curriculum and instruction, University of Malaya. She has many published articles in the field of educational technology.

Dr. Farrah Dina Yusop actively researches and publishes in the areas of higher education, Web 2.0, social media, and mobile learning. Her Civic-Minded Instructional Designer (CMID) framework has reframed current ways of educating professionals to improve public life. Her works appeared in various local and top tier international journals indexed by ISI, Scopus and ERA. She has won a number of prestigious international and local awards for her academic contributions. Correspondence regarding this article can also be addressed directly to: farah@um.edu.my.

Amirul Mukminin holds a PhD from Florida State University, USA in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies and MS in educational sciences from Groningen University, the Netherlands. He received a Fulbright scholarship to pursue his PhD and an Erasmus Mundus postdoctoral researcher, University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He received a 2016-2017 Fulbright Senior Research at Claremont Graduate University, California, USA.

Lalu Nurul Yaqin is a PhD student at University of Malaya who is major in English language and linguistics.


We thank all FGDs participants for their time and willingness to participate. Financing of this study was fully provided by LPDP Indonesia

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