The aim of this mixed-methods study was to address the issue of burnout and lack of motivation in middle and high school student-athletes. As young athletes cope with school and stresses of extracurricular activities, they often react negatively to external feedback and motivation. The athletes often find themselves in a low state of self-efficacy due to perceived external pressures. This can lead to burnout and ultimately quitting the sport. This study utilized a model that was designed to use self-assessment to increase self-efficacy among athletes to promote a higher sense of accomplishment and motivation toward success. The athletes were all female volleyball players ranging from ages 10-18. Each athlete received a pretest to ascertain her level of motivation prior to the beginning of the athletic season. During their athletic seasons, 30 of the athletes participated in a weekly self-assessment program producing measurable quantitative data to be used as predictors. A sample selection of the athletes was also interviewed to allow for reflection on the study and produce qualitative data intended to predict possible outcomes of the study. Upon completion of the season the athletes took a post-test to measure their levels of motivation. The outcome of the study produced a statistical effect that demonstrated an increase in self-efficacy and self-determination in athletes, and subsequently increased motivation. The qualitative interview data corroborated the effect produced by the quantitative data.


Self-Assessment, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, Burnout, Self-Determination Theory, Competence Motivation Theory, Expectancy-Value Theory, Mixed-Methods

Author Bio(s)

I am an editor of TQR. This is my doctoral dissertation for Nova Southeastern University. I have been an educator and coach for the past 25 years. Correspondence regarding this article can be addressed directly to: ar2122@mynsu.nova.edu.

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