This study focuses on the selected factors affecting teachers’ implementation of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) curriculum in secondary schools in Bangladesh. The study is explorative, interpretivist, and qualitative in nature. A phenomenology approach, under qualitative method, was adopted to explore how teachers experience the phenomenon of CLT based curriculum change. Four schools were chosen, two from Dhaka (Urban), the capital of the country, and two from the villages in Chandpur (Rural). Eight selected participants were chosen from these schools based on a purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation and document analysis of curriculum, assessment, and teaching materials were the instruments of data collection. The finding of the study suggests that the shift from traditional Grammar Translation Method (GTM) to CLT was needed a positive outlook from all the selected factors in the context of change; however, this did not happen. Numerous factors such as, needs of classroom teachers, complexities regarding the mismatch of teaching syllabus and material with assessment, unequipped classrooms, and quality of teacher development facilities have challenged teachers to implement CLT as it was intended in the curriculum. The study suggests some recommendations to ensure the effective implementation of CLT curriculum. Future research is also recommended based on other factors and stakeholders.


English Language Teaching (ELT), Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), Curriculum Implementation, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), Teacher Quality, Teachers Education, Qualitative Method, Phenomenology Approach

Author Bio(s)

Mohammad Mosiur Rahman (MRes) is a graduate research student at the School of Languages, Literacies and Translation, Universiti Sains Malaysia. His research interests are the interdisciplinary issues in language education and applied linguistics. From the macro level language policy, curriculum development and implementation to micro level classroom language teaching, he has published widely. He is currently holding the prestigious Graduate Assistantship for the year of 2016–2017. Any correspondence should be redirected to following email: mosiurbhai@gmail.com

Dr. Ambigapathy Pandian is a Professor and Dean at the Faculty of Language Studies and Communication Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak in Kuching, Malaysia. He was former Professor and founding Dean of School of Languages, Literacies and Translation. His field of research interests are wide- ranging- - they include language and literacy education, TESOL, Sociolinguistics and more recently on higher education. He is very well published, being the author and editor of more than 40 books and many articles featured in local and International journals. Currently, Professor Ambigapathy is also a Professorial Fellow with Charles Darwin University, Australia and Visiting Professor at Ramkhamheng University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Manjet Kaur (Ph.D.) is the Deputy Dean of Research, Postgraduate & Networking at the School of Languages, Literacies and Translation, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Her areas of specializations are wide-ranging- they include applied linguistics, multiculturalism, and higher education. Being an active author in the field of language Education and applied linguistic, she has published numeral articles in the national and international journals.


We acknowledge respective school teachers to participate in the study and school’s principals to allow collecting data from their schools. We also acknowledge the permission to conduct research by school of Languages, Literacies and Translation, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.





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