Many researchers have been inquiring into focus groups as a qualitative data collection method (Barbour & Kitzinger 1999; Krueger 1998; Morgan, 1998), but only a few have been able to analyse the different levels of understanding in focus groups, which we focus on in this article. The guiding research question is how do focus groups offer deeper levels of understandings from a systems psychodynamic perspective. Research participants were purposively sample d using maximum variation (Patton 2002). Data were collected during the focus group, and group data were analysed during data gathering. Meaning making and interpretation of data was done from the systems psychodynamic perspective. The main theme of inclusion and exclusion is evidence of hidden texts in focus groups.


Focus Groups, Systems Psychodynamic Perspective, Inclusion and Exclusion, Race, and Diversity

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