Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 7-12-2022

Student Bio

Renae L. Wilson is a first year student pursuing a Doctor of Philosophy in Pharmaceutical Sciences with concentration in Drug Development at Nova Southeastern University (NSU) Florida. Renae holds at Masters in Pharmaceutical Chemistry from the University of Florida & a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacology obtained in 2016 from the University of West Indies, Jamaica.

Reviewing Professor

Dr. Robert Speth

College Course

Drugs of Abuse


In 2019, there were approximately 332,000 pharmacists active in the US workforce, Data USA, 2019. A survey of 1,700 American adults, discovered, that 34% of Americans still rely on healthcare providers such as pharmacists, for information in relation their health, KRC Research, 2018. Pharmacists are one of the three most trusted health care professions and were found to be the second most trusted source for health information by Americans in 2005. Blendon et al., 2006 found, that information from pharmacist was trusted by 67%, of participants in their survey. One of the oaths pledged by pharmacist is, ‘I will apply my knowledge, experience, and skills to the best of my ability to assure optimal outcomes for all patients,’ AACP Board of Directors and the APhA Board of Trustees, 2021. In recent times however, this begs to question, is the goal still optimal outcomes for patients, or optimal outcomes for sustained revenues? The average American visits their pharmacy 775% more times, than their primary health care provider. It is quite alarming though, that pharmacists spend on average only 10% of their days with their patients, Gebhart, 2019