The exploration of three modalities (Face-to-Face instruction, Hybrid instruction, and Online Only instruction) of learning College Algebra was the purpose of this study. The classes for this study were from the same instructor, during the same semester, during restrictions due to the Covid-19 virus in 2020. The Face-to-Face instruction had 150 minutes of class instruction each week. The Hybrid class had 75 minutes of class instruction each week and the Online Only students had no classroom instruction each week. There were 21 students in the face-to-face class, 32 students in the hybrid section, and 66 students in the online section. The final grades of the three modalities were compared and the null hypothesis was that the medians would be the same across all of the modalities of instruction. The results of this study showed that while the final average median score for the Face-to-Face class and the Online Only were close, the Hybrid class was significantly less than either the Face-to-Face or the Online Only and the null hypothesis was rejected. However, when students with one or more months of inactivity in the course were eliminated, the medians were not significantly different and the null hypothesis failed to be rejected. The results are discussed with the focal point to determine if one modality is better than another to predict the success of students in College Algebra.
Selby, Stephen W. and Swick, Jim
"Which Modality Best Promotes Student Achievement in College Algebra,"
Transformations: Vol. 9:
1, Article 9.
Available at: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/transformations/vol9/iss1/9