Department of Conflict Resolution Studies Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences – Department of Conflict Resolution Studies

First Advisor

Elena P. Bastidas

Second Advisor

Mary Hope Schwoebel

Third Advisor

Urszula Strawinska-Zanko


equality, gender, military, perceptions, quantitative, transgender


Despite historical advancements toward gender equal policies, perceptions and attitudes regarding gender have the ability to impact the recruitment, retention, and promotion of gender minorities in the United States military. This quantitative study analyzed survey results from 493 military veterans regarding the perceptions and attitudes of gender equal statements, and sought to answer three research questions: 1) What factors predict perceptions and attitudes of gender equality in the United States military? 2) Do perceptions and attitudes of gender equality differ between different military branches? 3) Do demographic factors impact perceptions and attitudes of gender equality in the military? Chapter one of this dissertation introduces this study and its purpose, while chapter two discusses the historical background, literature review, and social theories that guided this study. Chapter three states the methodology of the study and outlines the design and limitations of this research. Chapter four presents the results of the study, which were obtained from descriptive statistics and analysis of a multiple regression, ANOVA, T-tests, and chi-squared tests. Results from the study concluded that gender, combat arms, generation, and military branch were significant variables in this research. Finally, chapter five summarizes findings, discusses follow up research, and acknowledges how this research and its results have contributed to the fields of conflict resolution and organizational behavior.