Subject Area

Counseling, Health Care, Psychology, Rehabilitation Counseling


Using state-of-the-art techniques, the authors interpreted two commonly used depression inventories, the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9), into American Sign Language (ASL): BDI-II-ASL and PHQ-9-ASL, respectively. A national sample of 361 deaf individuals who preferentially use ASL completed the BDI-II-ASL and PHQ-9-ASL online. BDI-II-ASL and PHQ-9-ASL scores were significantly and positively correlated. The results showed no significant differences in scores due to gender, Deaf cultural identification, race, ethnicity, or employment status. However, the results did show that less education was significantly associated with higher depression scores. The BDI-II-ASL and PHQ-9-ASL require norming in a comparative study of a confirmed diagnostic group and healthy control group.