Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - NSU Access Only

Degree Name

Master of Science


Center for the Advancement of Education


Elementary Education, Reading Ability, Achievement, Reading Instruction, Predictive Measurement, Predictor Variables, Prediction, Grade 2, Elementary School Students, Primary Education, Low Achievement, Academic Failure, Underachievement, High Risk Students, Failure Factors


In order to identify students at risk of failure in reading, a list was compiled in the school of factors held in common by students who had previously been retained in second grade. Cumulative folders were examined in order to gather the necessary data. At least 80 percent of the students in this part of the study were male, did not live with both parents, had failed the reading comprehension section of a local first grade minimum level skills test, and had visual sequential memory deficits. Other contributing factors were also identified. Using these factors, the records of 60 students who were in second grade and were in below-grade level or low-average reading groups were examined. On the basis of the presence of several predictive factors, students were labeled "at-risk" of failure in reading for the purposes of the project. When reading grades at the end of the second nine weeks were compared with the prediction, most of those whose grades were unsatisfactory had been correctly labeled "at-risk.” However, a higher than desired rate of false prediction of failure did occur. It appeared that, for a number of students, success depended upon the absence of an auditory or visual sequential memory deficit. The appendix includes student data gathered in this study.

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