Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Abraham S. Fischler College of Education


Shelia Halpin

Committee Member

Kenneth Stothers

Committee Member

Lynne Schrum


music education, teacher self-efficacy, teacher attitudes, literacy instruction


With the adoption of the common core state standards, pressure to raise the achievement of young learners was intense. Classroom teachers were scrutinized to teach lessons with high levels of thinking and rigor. Teachers were inclined to eliminate or ignore artsenriched lessons that would benefit students. The reason for this action was associated with the efficacy of the classroom teacher toward music integration in literacy curriculum. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of the Music Literacy Integration Intervention (MLII) on the self-efficacy and proactiveness of teachers at a small elementary school in Florida toward integration of music in reading instruction. There were 3 data-collection instruments. The Teacher Efficacy scale (TES) was used to collect pretest and posttest data for Research Question 1, whereas the Proactiveness Attitude scale (PAS) was used to collect the same type of data for Research Question 2. The Teacher Interview Instrument was used to collect only postimplementation data for Research Question 3. The triangulated data from the 3 instruments were used to respond to Research Question 4. Teacher participants had 272 students in kindergarten-Grade 5. There was a convenience sample of 20 teachers for the survey part of the study. Only 18 teachers returned completed surveys. The sample size for the interviews was 6 teachers randomly selected from 18 teachers. Quantitative data analysis for the Research Questions 1 and 2 was descriptive statistics (i.e., pretest mean, posttest mean, standard deviation, and effect size indicator). The inferential statistical model for the 2 research questions was the t test for paired samples. Qualitative data analysis for Research Question 3 followed a modified version of the constant-comparative, data-analysis procedure. Triangulated survey and interview data were used to respond to Research Question 4. Findings for Research Question 1 indicated the MLII improved teachers’ perceptions on their self-efficacy toward music integration as measured by the TES from pretest to posttest. Results for Research Question 2 suggested the MLII improved teachers’ perceptions of their proactive attitudes toward music integration as measured by the PAS. The increases in scores in both research questions showed large effect sizes. Findings for Research Question 3 indicated teachers perceived that the MLII met its objectives of providing useful strategies that facilitated the integration of music literacy into the reading instruction. Results for Research Question 4 showed the qualitative data from Research Question 3 confirmed the quantitative data from Research Questions 1 and 2. An implication was music had a positive effect on students’ reading abilities and school leaders should reinvest in music integration into the reading curriculum.