College of Psychology: Faculty Articles


Relationships of Objectively Scored Bender Variables with MMPI Scores in an Outpatient Psychiatric Population.

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Publication Date



Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Bender-Gestalt Test, Factor Analysis, Hospitalization, MMPI, Mental Disorders, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Regression Analysis, Reproducibility of Results, Severity of Illness Index.

Publication Title

Perceptual and Motor Skills








The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation system for the Bender Gestalt Test could reasonably predict the results of the most widely used objective measure of personality, the MMPI. Despite the widespread use of both tests, no previous studies could be found which correlated actual Bender scores with MMPI results, arising partly from the lack of a well-accepted, reliable, and objective scoring system for the Bender. The study compared the performance of 279 adult psychological outpatients on both the MMPI and Bender. The 55 Bender scorable points, which are seen most frequently in the outpatient population, were factor analyzed to yield 17 factors which were correlated with the MMPI. Significant multiple correlations were found between the Bender factors and 10 of 12 MMPI scales, with significant correlations ranging from .36 to .47. The Bender overall was able to discriminate moderately high scorers on the MMPI from low scorers. The overall results suggested that the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation scoring system includes measures that reflect general psychopathology and correlate with the MMPI as well as more specific content that is independent of the MMPI scales. The potential of this scoring system and joint use of the MMPI and Bender in personality assessment are discussed. Replication with a larger sample than 279 is encouraged for these 55 Bender and 12 MMPI items.



Peer Reviewed

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