The Influence of a Token Economy and Methylphenidate on Attentive and Disruptive Behavior During Sports with ADHD-Diagnosed Children
Three children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated in a summer program designed to evaluate the influence of stimulant medication and a token economy on attentive and disruptive behavior during kickball games. Attentive and disruptive behavior were assessed using an interval coding system, and daily ratings on the ADHD Index of the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised were also obtained. A multielement reversal design was used, and the results indicated that both interventions independently improved attentive behavior and decreased disruptive behavior for the participants. Contrary to other research, when the token economy and medication were compared in isolation, the token system appeared more effective in reducing disruptive behavior for 2 of the 3 participants. In addition, the token system generally enhanced the effects of stimulant medication.
Hupp, S. D.,
O'Callaghan, P. M.,
(2001). The Influence of a Token Economy and Methylphenidate on Attentive and Disruptive Behavior During Sports with ADHD-Diagnosed Children. Behavior Modification, 25(2), 305-323.
Available at: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/cps_facarticles/179