Genetic Restriction of HIV-1 Pathogenesis to AIDS by Promoter Alleles of IL10
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
IL10 promoter variant (IL10-5'A)
IL10 is a powerful TH-2 cell cytokine produced by lymphoid cells that limits HIV-1 replication in vivo, ostensibly by inhibiting macrophage/monocyte and T-cell lymphocyte replication and secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL1, TNFα, IL6, IL8, and IL12). A genetic epidemiological scan of patients enrolled in AIDS cohorts for candidate gene-linked short tandem repeat polymorphisms revealed significant genotype associations for HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS with markers adjacent to and tracking (by linkage disequilibrium) common single nucleotide polymorphic variants in the IL10 promoter region. Individuals carrying the IL10-5'-592A (IL10-5'A) promoter allele possibly were at increased risk for HIV-1 infection, and once infected they progressed to AIDS more rapidly than homozygotes for the alternative IL10-5'-592 C/C (IL10-+/+) genotype, particularly in the later stages of HIV-1 infection. An estimated 25–30% of long-term nonprogressors (who avoid clinical AIDS for 10 or more years after HIV-1 infection) can be attributed to their IL10- +/+ promoter genotype. Alternative IL10 promoter alleles are functionally distinct in relative IL10 production, in retention of an avian erythroblastosis virus transcription factor recognition sequence and in binding to specific putative nuclear transcription factors, suggesting a potential mechanism whereby IL10-5'A down-regulation of inhibitory IL10 facilitates HIV-1 replication in vivo, accelerating the onset of AIDS.
Shin, Hyoung Doo; Cheryl Winkler; J. Claiborne Stephens; Jay Bream; Howard Young; James J. Goedert; Thomas R. O'Brien; David Vlahov; Susan Buchbinder; Janis Giorgi; Charles Rinaldo; Sharyne Donfield; Anne Willoughby; Stephen J. O'Brien; and Michael W. Smith. 2000. "Genetic Restriction of HIV-1 Pathogenesis to AIDS by Promoter Alleles of IL10." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97, (26): 14467-14472. http://nsuworks.nova.edu/cnso_bio_facarticles/227