Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Proceedings, Presentations, Speeches, Lectures

A Toolkit for Managing the EE (Environmental Education) and ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) Continuum

Event Name/Location

2019 National Recreation and Parks Association Annual Conference / Baltimore, Maryland

Presentation Date


Document Type

Conference Proceeding






Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) represent extremes of a global continuum. EE stresses awareness of process about, from and for the environment (Vrasidas 2007). ESD is defined as education empowering communities to acquire best management practices engendering human, social, economic and natural sustainability (UNESCO 2012) and developing their resilience despite environmental changes (Fastenrath et al. 2019). ESD is a critical component of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (UN 2012), which grew from the Millennium Development Goals (UN 2000). Each park agency should develop research-based educational programs that address both EE and ESD. The ESD must promote stakeholder consilience (Wilson 1998) to weigh the contributions of all societal elements. A tool kit for experiential EE and ESD curricula should be designed to enable urban and rural communities to make informed adaptation choices to manage an ever-changing environment.

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