Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Datasets

Title

Supplementary materials: Holocene evolution of parabolic dunes, White River Badlands, South Dakota, USA, revealed by high-resolution mapping

Document Type

Other

Supplemental Figures

Publication Date

2022

Keywords

White River Badlands, parabolic dunes, northern Great Plains, Nebraska Sand Hills, Little Ice Age drought, last glacial period, sUAS, paleoclimate, Badlands National Park

Abstract

The data paper includes supplementary figures from geomorphological analysis of dunes in the White River Badlands. These figures provide additional information to readers of the paper of this name. White River Badlands (WRB) of South Dakota record aeolian activity spanning late Pleistocene through latest Holocene (21 ka to modern), reflecting the effects of the last glacial period and Holocene climate fluctuations (i.e. Holocene Thermal Maximum, Medieval Climate Anomaly, and Little Ice Age). The WRB are important to paleoclimate studies because of the scarcity of climate proxies in the area. The goal of this study is to use 1 m/pixel resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to distinguish early to middle Holocene parabolic dunes from late Holocene parabolic dunes. Results indicate that dunes are distinguished by slope and terrain ruggedness index or roughness. Differences are attributed to post-depositional wind erosion, soil formation, and mass wasting. Early to middle Holocene and late Holocene paleowind directions, 324˚± 13.1˚ (N=7) and 323˚ ± 3.0˚ (N = 19) respectively, are indistinguishable and like the modern wind regime. Results suggest that the landscape has significant resilience to wind erosion, which resulted in preservation of a mosaic of early and late parabolic dune. Quantification of differences in dune roughness will help refine the chronology of aeolian activity in the WRB, provide insight into drought-driven landscape evolution, and put activity in the WRB in a regional perspective.

Publication Title

Holocene evolution of parabolic dunes, White River Badlands, South Dakota, USA, revealed by high-resolution mapping

Supplemental Figure 1.pdf (26142 kB)
Supplemental Figure 1. An example of a polygons created for morphological analysis (top). Length was measured as the distance along A-A’ from back ridge to downwind crest (bottom left). Width was measured as the distance along B-B’ between the highpoints on the dune or blowout arms (bottom right). Upwind (solid vertical arrow, bottom left) and downwind relief (dashed vertical arrow, bottom right) were measured from the lowest point in the deflation hollow to the back ridge crest and the depositional lobe crest, respectively.

Supplemental Figure 2.pdf (17468 kB)
Supplemental Figure 2. Polygons for land surface analysis, Bouquet Table. Green symbols are OSL sample locations.

Supplemental Figure 3.pdf (16930 kB)
Supplementary Figure 3. Polygons for land surface analysis, Conata Ranch Table. Polygons 6, 8, and 14 were truncated at the boundary between the high and low resolution DEMs. The lengths of these polygons were extended into the low-resolution DEM for an estimated length. The truncated polygon was used to calculate slope and TRI. Green symbols are OSL sample locations.

Supplementary Figure 4a.pdf (1270 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4a. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 1, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4b.pdf (1147 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4b. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 2, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4c.pdf (1220 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4c. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 3, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4d.pdf (1351 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4d. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 5, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4e.pdf (1217 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4e. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 6, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4f.pdf (1471 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4f. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 8, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4g.pdf (1098 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4g. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 11, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4h.pdf (748 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4h. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 12, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4i.pdf (1503 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4i. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 13, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4j.pdf (449 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4j. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 14, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 4k.pdf (953 kB)
Supplementary Figure 4k. (a) Longitudinal profile of Conata Ranch Table polygon 15, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5a.pdf (1593 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5a. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 3, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5b.pdf (1956 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5b. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 4, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5c.pdf (2033 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5c. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 6, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5d.pdf (1885 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5d. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 7, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5e.pdf (1328 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5e. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 8, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5f.pdf (1561 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5f. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 9, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5g.pdf (1536 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5g. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 10, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5h.pdf (1265 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5h. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 11, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5i.pdf (975 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5i. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 12, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 5j.pdf (964 kB)
Supplementary Figure 5j. (a) Longitudinal profile of Bouquet Table polygon 13, upwind to downwind from left to right. (b) Transverse profile southwest to northeast from left to right. Approximately 2x vertical exaggeration.

Supplementary Figure 6.pdf (41777 kB)
Supplementary Figure 6. Locations and profiles of Cuny Table used for geomorphological analysis. Figs. 6a and 6b show locations of profiles through point of known age.

Supplementary Figure 7a.pdf (6192 kB)
Supplementary Figure 7a. Lines of transect through points of known age, Conata Ranch Table.

Supplementary Figure 7b.pdf (17849 kB)
Supplementary Figure 7b. Transect line and cross-section E to E’, Conata Ranch Table.

Supplementary Figure 7c.pdf (17213 kB)
Supplementary Figure 7c. Transect line and cross-section F to F’, Conata Ranch Table.

Supplementary Figure 8a.pdf (32010 kB)
Supplementary Figure 8a. Lines of transect through points of known age, Bouquet Table.

Supplementary Figure 8b.pdf (26001 kB)
Supplementary Figure 8b. Transect line and cross-section A to A’, Bouquet Table.

Supplementary Figure 8c.pdf (34916 kB)
Supplementary Figure 8c. Transect line and cross-section B to B’, Bouquet Table.

Supplementary Figure 8d.pdf (74645 kB)
Supplementary Figure 8d. Transect line and cross-section D to D’, Bouquet Table.

Supplementary Figure 8e.pdf (20138 kB)
Supplementary Figure 8e. Transect line and cross-section C to C’, Bouquet Table.

Share

COinS