Passive Dosing Yields Dissolved Aqueous Exposures of Crude Oil Comparable to the CROSERF (Chemical Response to Oil Spill: Ecological Effects Research Forum) Water Accommodated Fraction Method
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Water accommodated fraction, Passive dosing, Crude oil, PETROTOX
The Chemical Response to Oil Spill: Ecological Effects Research Forum's water accommodated fraction procedure was compared with 2 alternative techniques in which crude oil was passively dosed from silicone tubing or O‐rings. Fresh Macondo oil (MC252) was dosed at 30 mg/L using each approach to investigate oil dissolution kinetics, which was monitored by fluorometry as estimated oil equivalents (EOEs). Subsequent experiments with each dosing method were then conducted at multiple oil loadings. Following equilibration, test media were analytically characterized for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry and dissolved oil using biomimetic solid‐phase microextraction (SPME). The results showed that equilibrium was achieved within 72 h for all methods. Measured PAH concentrations were compared with oil solubility model predictions of dissolved exposures. The concentration and composition of measured and predicted dissolved PAHs varied with oil loading and were consistent between dosing methods. Two‐dimensional GC compositional data for this oil were then used to calculate dissolved toxic units for predicting MC252 oil acute toxicity across the expected range of species sensitivities. Predicted toxic units were nonlinear with loading and correlated to both EOE and biomimetic SPME. Passive dosing methods provide a practical strategy to deliver and maintain dissolved oil concentrations while avoiding the complicating role that droplets can introduce in exposure characterization and test interpretation.
Gopal Bera, Thomas Parkerton, Aaron Redman, Nicholas Turner, Dorothy-Ellen A. Renegar, Jose Sericano, and Anthony H. Knap. 2018. Passive Dosing Yields Dissolved Aqueous Exposures of Crude Oil Comparable to the CROSERF (Chemical Response to Oil Spill: Ecological Effects Research Forum) Water Accommodated Fraction Method .Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry , (11) : 2810 -2819. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/occ_facarticles/989.