Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles
Urban coral reefs: Degradation and resilience of hard coral assemblages in coastal cities of East and Southeast Asia
Marine Pollution Bulletin
Pollution, Reef compression, Reef restoration, Urban ecology, Urbanization
Given predicted increases in urbanization in tropical and subtropical regions, understanding the processes shaping urban coral reefs may be essential for anticipating future conservation challenges. We used a case study approach to identify unifying patterns of urban coral reefs and clarify the effects of urbanization on hard coral assemblages. Data were compiled from 11 cities throughout East and Southeast Asia, with particular focus on Singapore, Jakarta, Hong Kong, and Naha (Okinawa). Our review highlights several key characteristics of urban coral reefs, including “reef compression” (a decline in bathymetric range with increasing turbidity and decreasing water clarity over time and relative to shore), dominance by domed coral growth forms and low reef complexity, variable city-specific inshore-offshore gradients, early declines in coral cover with recent fluctuating periods of acute impacts and rapid recovery, and colonization of urban infrastructure by hard corals. We present hypotheses for urban reef community dynamics and discuss potential of ecological engineering for corals in urban areas.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License.
Eliza C. Heery, Bert W. Hoeksema, Nicola K. Browne, James D. Reimer, Put O. Ang, Danwei Huang, Daniel A. Friess, Loke Ming Chou, Lynette H. L. Loke, Poonam Saksena-Taylor, Nadia Alsagoff, Thamasak Yeemin, Makamas Sutthacheep, Si Tuan Vo, Arthur R. Bos, Girley S. Gumanao, Muhammad Ali Syed Hussein, Zarinah Waheed, David J. W. Lane, Ofri Johan, Andreas Kunzmann, Jamaluddin Jompa, Suharsono, Daisuke Taira, Andrew G. Bauman, and Peter A. Todd. 2018. Urban coral reefs: Degradation and resilience of hard coral assemblages in coastal cities of East and Southeast Asia .Marine Pollution Bulletin : 654 -681. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/occ_facarticles/1303.
This review was supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister's Office, Singapore under its Marine Science Research and Development Programme (Award No. MSRDP-05). Research by Bert Hoeksema was financed by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO, grants W77-96, W84-354). We are grateful to Tomofumi Nagata (Okinawa Environment Science Center Foundation Inc) and Japanese Ministry of Environment (2004-2017) Monitoring Site 1000 for coral reefs for providing data for this review.