Disparities in Adult and Pediatric Trauma Outcomes: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
World Journal of Surgery
Although safeguards requiring emergency care are provided regardless of a patient’s payor status, disparate outcomes have been reported in trauma populations. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether race/ethnicity or insurance status had an effect on mortality and to systematically present the literature in the adult and pediatric trauma populations during the last decade.
An online search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and SAGE Journals was performed for publications from January 2009 to March 2019. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were used. The GRADE Working Group criteria were utilized to assess the evidence quality. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare mortality between insured/uninsured and Caucasian/non-Caucasian patients.
Our search revealed 680 publications that qualified for evaluation. Of these, 41 were included in the final analysis. Twenty-six studies included adults only, nine studies included pediatric patients only, and six studies evaluated both. Twelve studies evaluated the effects of race/ethnicity, 18 examined insurance status, and 11 investigated both. Uninsured patients had 22% greater odds of death than insured patients (OR 1.22; CI 1.21–1.24). Non-Caucasian patients had 18% greater risk of death than Caucasian patients (OR 1.18; CI 1.17–1.20).
Both the adult and pediatric trauma populations suffer outcome disparities based on race/ethnicity and insurance status. Overall, patients without insurance coverage and minority groups (i.e., non-Caucasians) had worse outcomes, as measured by odds of death and all-cause mortality.
Sanchez, Carol; Shaikh, Saamia; Dowd, Brianna; Santos, Radleigh; McKenney, Mark; and Elkbuli, Adel, "Disparities in Adult and Pediatric Trauma Outcomes: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" (2020). Mathematics Faculty Articles. 306.