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covid microbiome, kynurenine covid, omega-3 covid, vitamin c covid, vitamin d covid, post covid neurological, long-covid syndrome, pathophysiology of post-covid syndrome, neurological and psychiatric complications, post-covid-19 syndrome







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The post-COVID syndrome was officially recognized as a disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act, indicating that this syndrome has made a significant impact on our populace. Also, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) is a term that describes the long-term health problems that some people experience after being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. These problems can last for weeks, months, or even years, and can affect various parts of the body, such as the heart, lungs, brain, and blood vessels. This narrative review paper utilized the PubMed database to explore the pathophysiology of post-COVID syndrome's neurological and psychiatric symptoms and PASC and make therapeutic connections to the known mechanisms of various nutritional, supplemental, and wellness approaches. Searches were queried on the PubMed database between March 29 and April 16, 2022, using the phrases “long-covid,” “post-COVID syndrome,” “Vitamin D covid,” “vitamin C covid,” “omega-3 covid,” “kynurenine covid,” “whole-body hyperthermia,” “mushrooms immunity,” “n-acetyl cysteine covid,” “mushrooms cognition,” “sugar consumption inflammation,” and “covid microbiome.” Articles were screened for their relevance to the discussion of post-COVID syndrome's neurological and psychiatric pathophysiology at the discretion of the principal researcher. There were no limitations regarding publication years, but articles from 2005 to April 2022 were cited. Micro-ischemic disease, neuropathy, autoimmune processes, mast-cell activation, and impaired blood-brain barriers have all been implicated in the pathological processes of this syndrome with varying degrees of supportive evidence. The common denominators, however, are inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, a beneficial approach to dealing with the complications of post-COVID syndrome would be to reduce the exacerbations of these common denominators with lifestyle and nutritional changes. Replenishing nutritional deficiencies, supplementing with N-acetylcysteine, decreasing consumption of refined sugars, preventing dysbiosis of the microbiome, performing exercises, increasing dietary intake of mushrooms, utilizing beneficial herbs such as rosemary, and increasing the core body temperature through whole-body hyperthermia seem to show potential for efficacy in this pursuit. Considering the safety and evidence-based connections of the therapies explored for dealing with the post-Covid syndrome, it could be of great benefit and of little harm to our patients to include these considerations in formulating post-Covid treatment plans.


Conflicts of interest: In compliance with the ICMJE uniform disclosure form, all authors declare the following: Payment/services info: All authors have declared that no financial support was received from any organization for the submitted work. Financial relationships: All authors have declared that they have no financial relationships at present or within the previous three years with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work. Other relationships: All authors have declared that there are no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



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