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gout, urate-lowering therapy, serum uric acid, pharmacoepidemiology, lipids, hs-CRP, gout comorbidities







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Gout is one of the most common inflammatory conditions with a growing global prevalence. Individuals with gout are at higher risk of developing chronic conditions, such as diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the association between uratelowering therapy (ULT) use and the prevalence of these conditions was evaluated. This observational cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiologic study used the 2013–2018 biannual cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The inclusion criteria were adults that were 30 years of age or older that had a diagnosis of gout. The association between patients’ ULT treatment status and dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease was evaluated as well as its association with select clinical laboratory biomarkers. The prevalence of ULT use was 28.9% (95% CI 24.3–33.9%). Those receiving ULT had a higher prevalence of CKD diagnoses, of a college graduate or higher and of health insurance coverage, and they were older obese males. There was no significant association between ULT use and the prevalence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, or dyslipidemia (p > 0.05). Those receiving ULT had lower high-sensitivity c-reactive protein levels compared to those who were not on treatment (4.74 versus 7.21 mg/L, p = 0.044). LDL and total cholesterol were significantly lower among those receiving ULT treatment (p < 0.05). ULT use continues to be low among US individuals diagnosed with gout. Socioeconomic factors may influence patients’ ULT treatment status. Also, gout risk factors, including obesity, male sex, and CKD, are associated with receiving ULT. While our findings may have reflected the guideline recommendations for ULT use in CKD patients, worsening kidney functions while receiving ULT is unlikely. Gout patients receiving ULT may garner added health benefits beyond lower urate levels. Further research is necessary to determine the long-term impact of ULTs on lipid fractions, kidney functions, and other cardiovascular biomarkers.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



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