Optical coherence tomography angiography measurements in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is an ocular imaging technology that has emerged as a non-invasive tool to evaluate retinal microvascular changes in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. While several studies have reported on the presence of pathologic retinal microvascular alterations in PD, the utility of OCT-A as a biomarker for PD evaluation is still unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to explore the current evidence for the role of OCT-A in PD published up until June 2022. PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were used to systematically identify relevant papers and a meta-analysis was conducted using Stata16 software according to the level of heterogeneity applying a random- or fixed-effect model. Thirteen studies of 925 eyes in the PD group and 1501 eyes in the control group assessing OCT-A findings in PD patients were included. The meta-analyses revealed that the foveal region of PD patients had a significantly lower vessel density in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) compared to healthy controls but that there were no significant differences in the foveal avascular zone, the SCP in whole, parafoveal, and perifoveal regions, and deep capillary plexus. OCT-A metrics may act as a potential biomarker for a more accurate and early PD diagnosis. Still, the OCT-A algorithms and interchangeability between OCT-A devices require further standardization to draw clinical conclusions regarding their utility.


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