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Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy


Interleukin-34, Alzheimer’s Disease, Osteolysis, Neuroinflammation, RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, Cognitive behavior





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Hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include elevated accumulation of aggregated Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides, hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau), and neuroinflammation. Emerging evidence indicated that interleukin-34 (IL-34) contributes to AD and inflammatory osteolysis via the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1r). In addition, CSF-1r is also activated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (M-CSF). While the role of M-CSF in bone physiology and pathology is well addressed, it remains controversial whether IL-34-mediated signaling promotes osteolysis, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation in relation to AD. In this study, we injected 3x-Tg mice with mouse recombinant IL-34 protein over the calvaria bone every other day for 42 days. Then, behavioral changes, brain pathology, and calvaria osteolysis were evaluated using various behavioral maze and histological assays. We demonstrated that IL-34 administration dramatically elevated AD-like anxiety and memory loss, pathogenic amyloidogenesis, p-Tau, and RAGE expression in female 3x-Tg mice. Furthermore, IL-34 delivery promoted calvaria inflammatory osteolysis compared to the control group. In addition, we also compared the effects of IL-34 and M-CSF on macrophages, microglia, and RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in relation to AD pathology in vitro. We observed that IL-34-exposed SIM-A9 microglia and 3x-Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages released significantly elevated amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, compared to M-CSF treatment in vitro. Furthermore, IL-34, but not M-CSF, elevated RANKL-primed osteoclastogenesis in the presence of Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides in bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from female 3x-Tg mice. Collectively, our data indicated that IL-34 elevates AD-like features, including behavioral changes and neuroinflammation, as well as osteoclastogenesis in female 3x-Tg mice.


This work was supported by a Nova Southeastern University President Faculty Research Development Grant, Indiana Center for Musculoskeletal Health, and NIH Grants R01AG-064003, R15DE-027153, R03DE-028699, K02AG-068595 (AM), and R01AG-060621 (MK)



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