second and third trimester, late postpartum depression, tpo-antibody positive, hypothyroidism, thyroid markers, postpartum psychosis, postpartum blues, postpartum depression, postpartum mood disorders, thyroid predictors
Postpartum mood disorders (PMD) are currently among the leading causes of maternal postpartum morbidity and mortality. PMD include the conditions of postpartum blues (PB), postpartum depression (PPD), and postpartum psychosis. The pathogenesis of PMDs are ambiguous, and there are no reliable prenatal predictive markers despite current research efforts. Even though reliable indicators have not been found, leading ideas suggest an etiology of hormonal fluctuations. Although thyroid markers have long been linked to psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), how they correlate with PMDs is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological link between thyroid function, PMDs, and the usefulness of thyroid markers as indicators of their occurrence and severity.
The methodology consisted of a narrative literature review. Several inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to filter the results of literature searches in PubMed. Studies were included if they discussed any marker related to thyroid endocrinology in relation to the incidence or pathophysiology of any PMD. Both primary and secondary analyses were included. The permissive inclusion criteria were used due to the relative scarcity of research on the topic and the ambiguous pathophysiology of PMD.
The results demonstrated the potential utility of thyroid autoimmunity as a predictor of late-onset PPD. Hypothyroidism, low euthyroid hormone levels, and the presence of thyroid autoantibodies were correlated with increased incidence of PPD and late postpartum depressive symptoms, past the timeline of PB. Most notably a rapid postpartum drop in cortisol level may precipitate thyroid autoimmunity in anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody positive women, which could eventually produce a hypothyroid phase associated with depressive symptoms. There was insufficient evidence to suggest a relationship with postpartum psychosis. In conclusion, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of PMDs remain ambiguous, but TPO-antibodies in the third trimester may be a predictor of late PPD.
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Backer, Sean; Yancheva, Janeta; Garcia, Camelia; and Khanna, Deepesh, "Thyroid Predictors of Postpartum Mood Disorders" (2023). HPD Articles. 278.
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