Journal of Research in Nursing
burnout, discrimination, diversity, patient safety, workforce and employment
BACKGROUND: Bullying and discrimination may be indirectly associated with patient safety via their contribution to burnout, but research has yet to establish this. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between workplace bullying, perceived discrimination, levels of burnout and patient safety perceptions in nurses and midwives and to assess whether bullying and discrimination were more frequently experienced by Black, Asian and minority ethnic than White nurses and midwives. METHODS: In total, 528 nurses and midwives were recruited from four hospitals in the United Kingdom to complete a cross-sectional survey between February and March 2017. The survey included items on bullying, discrimination, burnout and individual level and ward level patient safety perceptions. Data were analysed using path analysis. RESULTS: The results were reported according to the STROBE checklist. Bullying and discrimination were significantly associated with higher burnout. Higher burnout was in turn associated with poorer individual- and ward-level patient safety perceptions. Experiences of discrimination were three times more common among Black, Asian and minority ethnic than White nurses and midwives, but there was no significant difference in experiences of bullying. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying and discrimination are indirectly associated with patient safety perceptions via their influence on burnout. Healthcare organisations seeking to improve patient care should implement strategies to reduce workplace bullying and discrimination.
Johnson, Judith; Cameron, Lorraine; Mitchinson, Lucy; Parmar, Mayur; Opio-Te, Gail; Louch, Gemma; and Grange, Angela, "An investigation into the relationships between bullying, discrimination, burnout and patient safety in nurses and midwives: is burnout a mediator?" (2019). HPD Articles. 17.
© The Author(s) 2019