acute esophageal necrosis (aen), black esophagus, clinical manifestations, diabetic ketoacidosis, diagnosis, endoscopy, epidemiology, gurvits syndrome, risk factors, treatment
Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also termed "black esophagus," is a unique and uncommon occurrence observed in severely sick patients. Other terminologies include acute necrotizing esophagitis and Gurvits syndrome. This condition is described as a darkened distal third of the esophagus observed on endoscopy and presents as an upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed, difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, fever, syncope, nausea, and vomiting. The etiology of AEN has been linked to several possibilities, such as excessive gastric acid reflux, hypoperfusion, and ischemia due to impaired vascular supply and hemodynamic instability. Risk factors include increased age, sex (male), heart disease, hemodynamic insufficiency, alcohol use, gastric outlet obstruction, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), malnutrition, renal disease, and trauma which also have the propensity to complicate disease course. An esophageal biopsy is not warranted. Treatment of AEN is comprised of supportive management with intravenous fluids, proton pump inhibitors (PPI), sucralfate, parenteral nutrition, and antacids. Management of preexisting comorbidities associated with AEN is crucial to prevent exacerbation of the disease course that could result in a poor prognosis and increased mortality rates. This literature review article comprises epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of AEN.
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Rehman, Obaid; Jaferi, Urooj; Padda, Inderbir; Khehra, Nimrat; Atwal, Harshan; and Parmar, Mayur, "Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Clinical Manifestations of Acute Esophageal Necrosis in Adults" (2021). HPD Articles. 12.
Copyright © 2021, Rehman et al.