alzheimer's disease, amyloid beta, endocrinology and diabetes, hyperglycemia, tauopathy
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia caused by a lack of insulin, insulin resistance, or both. It is associated with the development of secondary complications resulting in several comorbidities. Recent studies have revealed an increased risk of developing cognitive dysfunction or dementia in diabetes patients. Diabetes mellitus is considered a risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is increasing evidence to support a link between DM and AD. Studies have shown the dysfunction of insulin signaling in the brain, resulting in increased tau protein phosphorylation (hyperphosphorylation), a hallmark and biomarker of AD pathology, leading to accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles. In DM, the insulin dysfunction in the brain is reported to alter the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity showing to enhance tau phosphorylation. In DM and AD, GSK-3β signaling has been involved in the physiological and pathological processes, respectively. This potentially explains why DM patients have an increased risk of developing AD with disease progression and aging. Interestingly, several in vivo studies with oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin treatment in DM have improved cognitive function and decreased tau hyperphosphorylation. This article will review the relationship between DM and AD as it relates to tau pathology. More understanding of the link between DM and AD could change the approach researchers and clinicians take toward both diseases, potentially leading to new treatments and preventative strategies in the future.
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Hobday, Amy L. and Parmar, Mayur S., "The Link Between Diabetes Mellitus and Tau Hyperphosphorylation: Implications for Risk of Alzheimer's Disease" (2021). HPD Articles. 11.
Copyright © 2021, Hobday et al.