Faculty Articles

Title

Bezlotoxumab for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile Recurrence

Publication Title

Consult Pharm

Volume

33

Issue

2

Publication Date / Copyright Date

2-1-2018

First Page

89

Last Page

97

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, tolerability, dosing, and administration of bezlotoxumab (BEZ), as well as its place in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence.

DATA SOURCES: A search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms "bezlotoxumab," "CDB1," "MDX-1388," and "MK-6072" was performed. The manufacturer's website was also reviewed to further identify relevant information.

STUDY SELCTION: All English-language articles from 2006 to May 2017 appearing in these searches were reviewed for relevance to this paper. In addition, their bibliographies were reviewed to identify any articles not identified in the searches.

DATA SYNTHESIS: BEZ is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to Clostridium difficile toxin B. It is approved by the Food and Drug Administration to reduce CDI recurrence in adult patients who are receiving antibiotic therapy for CDI and are at high risk for CDI recurrence. It is given as a single dose of 10 mg/kg via an intravenous infusion. It is eliminated by catabolism. Phase III clinical trials demonstrated that BEZ was associated with significantly lower rates of CDI recurrence, compared with placebo. The most common adverse events reported during clinical trials were diarrhea and nausea. There is a warning regarding the use of BEZ in patients with a history of congestive heart failure. The most common adverse reactions associated with BEZ are nausea, pyrexia, and headache.

CONCLUSION: BEZ has been proven safe and effective in preventing CDI recurrence. Given its high cost, it should be reserved for patients at high risk for CDI recurrence.

Disciplines

Medicine and Health Sciences | Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Keywords

Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins, Clostridium Infections, Clostridium difficile, Humans, Infusions, Intravenous, Secondary Prevention

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