Glucagon revisited: Coordinated actions on the liver and kidney.
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Diabetes research and clinical practice
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Glucagon secretion is stimulated by a low plasma glucose concentration. By activating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, glucagon contributes to maintain a normal glycemia. Glucagon secretion is also stimulated by the intake of proteins, and glucagon contributes to amino acid metabolism and nitrogen excretion. Amino acids are used for gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, two metabolic pathways that are closely associated. Intriguingly, cyclic AMP, the second messenger of glucagon action in the liver, is released into the bloodstream becoming an extracellular messenger. These effects depend not only on glucagon itself but on the actual glucagon/insulin ratio because insulin counteracts glucagon action on the liver. This review revisits the role of glucagon in nitrogen metabolism and in disposal of nitrogen wastes. This role involves coordinated actions of glucagon on the liver and kidney. Glucagon influences the transport of fluid and solutes in the distal tubule and collecting duct, and extracellular cAMP influences proximal tubule reabsorption. These combined effects increase the fractional excretion of urea, sodium, potassium and phosphates. Moreover, the simultaneous actions of glucagon and extracellular cAMP are responsible, at least in part, for the protein-induced rise in glomerular filtration rate that contributes to a more efficient excretion of protein-derived end products.
Medicine and Health Sciences | Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Cyclic AMP, Glucagon, Gluconeogenesis, Healthy Volunteers, Humans, Insulin, Kidney, Liver, Male, Urea
Bankir, Lise; Bouby, Nadine; Speth, Robert Charles; Velho, Gilberto; and Crambert, Gilles, "Glucagon revisited: Coordinated actions on the liver and kidney." (2018). Faculty Articles. 115.