Master of Science (M.S.) in Dentistry
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College of Dental Medicine
Publication Date / Copyright Date
Nova Southeastern University
Tyler Chance DeVaughan. 2017. Tooth Size Comparison Between Citizens of the Chickasaw Nation and Caucasians. Master's thesis. Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved from NSUWorks, College of Dental Medicine. (90)
Objective The goal of this study is to establish normative tooth crown size (mesio-distal width) data for the Chickasaw Nation and demonstrate how it relates to Caucasian standards. Background: Tooth size ratios represent a diagnostic tool that allow for a prediction of treatment outcomes. A proper relationship of the total mesio-distal width of the maxillary dentition to the mesio- distal width of the mandibular dentition will favor an ideal post treatment occlusion. If a patient has a significant tooth size discrepancy between the dental arches, alignment of the teeth into this ideal occlusion may not be possible. Patients commonly receive orthodontic treatment to correct a malocclusion, and upon initiating treatment, goals are set to an ideal standard established for a patient population. Evaluation of the historical data reveals that there is little detailed knowledge, with no ideal or normative standards, for certain patient populations. This is a current issue presented to members of many Native American tribes across the country. Dentally, Native Americans have been classified as having broader faces and larger dentition than Caucasians, but there has been little detailed investigation into the field to substantiate these claims. One such population, the Chickasaw Nation of Oklahoma, has no published data regarding dental dimensions or facial proportions. A detailed tooth crown size analysis with published information has been conducted on less than 1% of the 562 federally recognized tribes in the United States. Moreover, measurement and examination of tooth crown sizes of the Chickasaw Nation tribe of Native Americans has not been attempted and normative tooth size data does not exist. Methods: We conducted a study on a random sample of 63 pairs of study models from citizens of the Chickasaw Nation of Oklahoma to determine the normative data for citizens of this tribe. All participants had a registered, certified degree of Indian blood quantum. The mesio-distal tooth crown widths were measured to determine standard values for each tooth and the segments needed for analyzing the anterior and overall Bolton ratios. In addition, the maxillary and mandibular intercanine widths were recorded. The measurements were compared to data from Caucasian adolescents in the Iowa Facial Growth Study to determine if there were significant differences in tooth crown widths or Boltonratios between the two patient samples. Results: The initial measurements of the Chickasaw Nation Sample dentition enabled the establishment of standard mesio-distal tooth widths and intercanine distances of tribal citizens. Comparison of the male and female dentition demonstrated males have significantly larger mesio-distal tooth widths. Comparison of left vs. right side like teeth in the Chickasaw dentition demonstrated significant differences in males and females. Evaluation of the male and female Chickasaw dentition vs. the Caucasian normative values demonstrated the Chickasaw dentition was significantly wider. A significant difference was also found in the Bolton ratios of the Chickasaw Nation Sample vs. the Caucasian standard ratios, but the ratios fell within normal limits. Conclusions: Establishment of standard mesio-distal tooth widths and Bolton ratios for the Chickasaw Nation of Oklahoma has demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the tooth widths for male and female citizens of the tribe. In addition, there is a significant difference between the established Chickasaw values and the Caucasian normative values. The results indicate that the mesio-distal crown diameters and tooth segment diameters were consistently larger in the Chickasaw sample. The newly established standards for the Chickasaw Nation will contribute directly to correct diagnosis and treatment planning of the Chickasaw Nation patient population.
Chickasaw Nation, Native American, Tooth size
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