Student Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Document Type



Evaluating the Protective Effect of Fluoride Varnishes on Enamel Subjected to Demineralization and Tooth-Brush Abrasion

Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Dentistry

Copyright Statement

All rights reserved. This publication is intended for use solely by faculty, students, and staff of Nova Southeastern University. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, now known or later developed, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author or the publisher.


College of Dental Medicine

First Advisor

Sibel Antonson

Publication Date / Copyright Date



Nova Southeastern University


Objectives: To evaluate the protective effects of different fluoride varnishes on enamel subjected to pH cycling and toothbrush abrasion, via monitoring changes in enamel microhardness, and the measurement of wear after toothbrushing. Methods: A hundred and forty samples were prepared from thirty-five molar and seventy anterior teeth. Specimens were divided into six varnish groups (Fluor Protector S, Vanish, NUPRO White, ProFluorid, Duraphat, and PreviDent), and one Control group (n=20). Fluoride varnishes were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions. Specimens were subjected to an 8-day pH cycling. The specimens were then exposed to 500 and 1,500 cycles of toothbrush abrasion to simulate one and three months of brushing respectively. Vickers Microhardness testing was done at baseline, after pH cycling, and after brushing for all groups. 3D digital scans were obtained from all specimens using an intra-oral scanner (CEREC OminCam) at baseline, after 1 month of brushing, and after 3 months of brushing. Wear measurements were done using exocad software. Surface examination was performed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to determine surface conditions at baseline, after pH cycling, and after toothbrush abrasion. Energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) was used for the elemental analysis of the sample to quantify the presence of fluoride content at baseline, after pH cycling, and after toothbrush abrasion. Results: Fluor Protector S and Duraphat have displayed the highest surface microhardness values after pH cycling (p




Demineralization, Fluoride, Retention, Varnish, Wear


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