Student Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Dentistry


College of Dental Medicine

First Advisor

Lifshitz, Abraham

Publication Date / Copyright Date



Nova Southeastern University


Abstract EVALUATION OF FRICTIONAL FORCES BETWEEN BRACKETS OF DIFFERENT TYPES AT VARIOUS ANGULATIONS AND AN ARCH WIRE: WITH AND WITHOUT PULSATING VIBRATION DEGREE DATE: DECEMBER 10, 2015 BENJAMIN M. CHRISTMAN, D.M.D. COLLEGE OF DENTAL MEDICINE NOVA SOUTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Thesis Directed by: Abraham B. Lifshitz, D.D.S., M.S., Committee Chair Sergio Real, D.D.S., M.S., Committee Member Gisela Contasti, D.D.S., Committee Member Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pulsating vibration on the sliding resistance between orthodontic brackets and stainless steel wires. Brackets were placed at two different angulations (0° and 5°) to simulate leveling of a tipped tooth during tooth movement. Pulsating vibration was delivered via the AcceleDent device. Background: Friction is defined as a force that retards or resists the relative motion of two objects in contact, and its direction is tangential to the common boundary of the two surfaces in contact.1 This has been of interest to the orthodontist since the mid-20th century. Since the time of Stoner’s paper in 1960, the orthodontic literature has been full of studies done on friction in orthodontics including: friction with different ligation methods, friction among different arch wire materials, friction and different bracket materials, and friction with various slot designs.2-14 Understanding friction has led to the emergence of new technologies in orthodontics. One of the most popular is the self-ligating bracket. This popularity arose from claims that they reduce friction during treatment.15 Other innovations have been introduced in the field of orthodontics to help accelerate tooth movement. Among these innovations is the application of a pulsating vibration during active orthodontic treatment. Such pulsating vibration can be delivered during orthodontic treatment by AcceleDent, which is a hands- free device designed by OrthoAccel Technologies, Inc., Bellaire, TX. The company claims the output force helps accelerate bone turnover. The following study investigated whether it could decrease treatment time via a different mechanism: decreasing frictional resistance to tooth movement along the arch wire. Methods: A paper template was made of a typodont tooth with a bracket window cut out. The bracket cut out was made with the bracket window angulated 0° and 5°. 0.022” x 0.028” standard prescription edgewise brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI) of ceramic, twin and self-ligating design were bonded to 3 maxillary 1st premolar typodont teeth using the template. The teeth were leveled with a 0.019” x 0.025” SS arch wire and placed in a metal scaffold. They were held in place with Aquasil Ultra XLV wash material PVS (DENTSPLY Caulk, Milford, DE.). Only the middle bracket was adjusted for angulation and accuracy was checked with the iPhone 6 level. The AcceleDent Aura device (OrthoAccel Technologies, Inc., Bellaire, TX). was attached to the occlusal surface of the teeth via cable ties. The AcceleDent Aura device provided 30 Hz of pulsating vibration. All tests were performed with a 0.019” x 0.025” SS arch wire pulled through the brackets via a Universal Testing Machine (Instron, Grove City, PA) at a crosshead speed of 2.5mm/min for 30 seconds. Frictional resistance was measured by averaging 6 recordings every 5 seconds. Results: The pulsating vibration provided by the AcceleDent device significantly reduced the resistance to sliding for each bracket type at both 0° and 5° (p<0.05). Ceramic brackets had the highest resistance to sliding of all bracket types. Conclusions: Pulsating vibration via the AcceleDent Aura device reduces the resistance to sliding between a bracket and arch wire in vitro. This may potentially decrease overall treatment time but more in vivo studies need to be done to evaluate this.





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