Student Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.) in Dentistry


College of Dental Medicine

Publication Date / Copyright Date



Nova Southeastern University


A thesis submitted to the College of Dental Medicine of Nova Southeastern University of the degree of Master of Science in Dentistry.

Objectives: To determine the amount of initial fluoride release from four orthodontic bonding systems over a period of four weeks, and then to subject these materials to an external source of fluoride for recharge in order to measure the amount of fluoride re-release over another four-week interval. Additionally the surface morphology of these materials was analyzed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify microscopic changes in the materials that may have occurred during the experiment. Methods: Four orthodontic adhesives: Fuji Ortho LC (GC America, Alsip, IL), Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA), Illuminate Light Cure (Ortho Organizers, Carlsbad, CA), and Opal Seal with Opal Bond MV (Ultradent, South Jordan, UT), n=120 (30/material) were tested for fluoride release at 1 hour, 24 hours, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks. Samples (10/subgroup/material) were then recharged with an external source of fluoride (toothpaste, foam, or varnish), and retested for fluoride re-release at 1 hour, 24 hours, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks. The scanning electron microscope was utilized in order to assess each material's surface morphology before testing and after completion of the experiment (n=16). Descriptive statistics, means and standard deviations were calculated for all four materials and their subgroups at each time interval. A mixed model two-way ANOVA was run, using a level of significance of 0.05. Bonferroni multiple comparison tests were conducted using if groups were found to be statistically significantly different. To determine significant differences between fluoride release and re-release for each recharge subgroup within each material group, paired t-tests were performed for the time intervals of 24 hours, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. For the paired t-tests, the level of significance used was 0.02 to allow for Bonferroni correction. Results: During the initial 24 hours the fluoride measurements (in mg/L or ppm) were as follows: Fuji 9.78±0.65, Illuminate 7.83±1.49, Opal 0.05±0.02, and Transbond 0.01±0.0. At the initial four weeks time point, the readings were as follows: Fuji 6.68±0.79, Illuminate 3.82±1.84, Opal 0.06±0.01, and Transbond 0.01±0.01. The greatest fluoride release came from the varnish subgroups from each of the materials at 2 weeks post re-charge: Fuji 9.16±1.53, Illuminate 7.5±3.1 (tied with foam subgroup 7.5±4.4), Opal 5.3±2.45, and Transbond 3.75±1.67. The greatest fluoride measurement for each material at the final week post-recharge was: Fuji varnish subgroup 8.3±3.58, Illuminate foam subgroup 6.5±3.5, Opal varnish subgroup 2.50±1.1, and Transbond varnish subgroup 1.72±1.82. SEM results showed an observable difference between the materials pre-experiment and post-experiment at a magnification of 50X and 500X. The Fuji foam and paste subgroups displayed surface crackling patterns at both magnifications when compared to the control and varnish samples. The Illuminate control, foam, and paste specimens all had a roughened grainy appearance, while the varnish specimen seemed to be smoothed over by the varnish material. The Transbond samples appeared to have observable differences in surface morphology at 50X, but not at 500X. The Opal paste and foam specimens appeared to have a smoother surface than both the control and the varnish samples. Conclusions: There were significant differences in release and re-release of fluoride among all four adhesives at different time intervals over a period of eight weeks. Significant increase in fluoride re-release was seen for all three of the recharge subgroups for both Opal and Transbond at each time interval. A significant increase in fluoride re-release for the Illuminate group was mainly observed at the end of second and fourth week. Though no significant increase in fluoride re-release was observed, Fuji released highest amount of fluoride during release and re-release, at all different time intervals. Fluoride varnish was the superior recharge material, as it provided the greatest fluoride measurements, followed by foam and toothpaste. There were observable changes in the surface morphology of the materials pre-experiment and post-experiment at a magnification of 50X and 500X, which may have an affect on the fluoride releasing capabilities of the materials.


Dentistry | Orthodontics and Orthodontology


Applied sciences, Health and environmental sciences, Fluoride release, Orthodontic adhesives, Orthodontic bonding, Recharge



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