HCBE Faculty Articles

Ethnic Diversity, Distrust and Corruption in Afghanistan: Reflections on the Creation of an Inclusive Culture


Bahaudin Mujtaba0000-0003-1615-3100

Document Type


Publication Title

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal



Publication Date



Purpose – Afghanistan is an ethnically diverse country which has suffered from many negative consequences caused by mismanagement of diversity, low levels of education, and political acrimony among different groups. The paper seeks to discuss how cultural and ethnic diversity can lead to civil unrest and make management of a country more complex. When diversity is not managed well, its consequences can be high levels of conflict, animosity, discrimination, corruption, and distrust among different ethnic groups. Design/methodology – This is a conceptual paper. It covers the realities of ethnic, religious and language diversity in Afghanistan based on first hand observations and experience along with findings from the literature. Findings – The paper suggests that diversity education along with an ethical climate is especially crucial for Afghanistan if the aim is to create an inclusive culture where everyone's voice is heard, understood and integrated for implementation. A diversity continuum model for inclusivity is created for managers, expatriates, diversity officers, government officials, and educators so they can use it for their training and development programs in their efforts to create a fair work climate in Afghanistan. Research limitations – This paper is limited to personal observations and experiences along with a review of literature from experts who write about diversity and corruption. Practical implications – Managers, employers, and employees can use this material for training to create diversity awareness, provide diversity management skills, and to reduce unfair, discriminatory, and corrupt practices. Social implications – Employees of all ethnicities should know their rights and work toward the creation of an inclusive culture in Afghanistan. Originality – This is an original paper and the inclusivity model is created by the author for this study.







First Page


Last Page


This document is currently not available here.

Peer Reviewed

Find in your library