Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Type

Master of Science

Degree Name

Biological Sciences

First Advisor

George Duncan, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Melissa Dore, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Emily Schmitt Lavin, Ph.D.


Science Education, Biology, Experiential Learning, Bloom's Taxonomy, Multiple Intelligence


This literature review paper discusses the history, evolution, and current learning trends related to teaching biology in a 9-12 classroom, along with the history and evolution and suggestions for improvement and implementation. Science education has changed rapidly over the past few decades, and with modern technology and research available, the curriculum is ever-changing. With the medical and STEM fields growing at high rates, the focus on student comprehension and retention of science education is at an all-time high. This has caused a shift from a traditional classroom to a more modern, natural learning environment in schools. This paper reviews three common learning theories that are still used in classrooms today and their effectiveness and incorporation into current high school biology classes and science classrooms across America.